DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered <x>. The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases. you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".
Good spine health is important for every person. The human spine support the weight of the head, protects the body’s organs, and receives <1>the gravitational pull that helps with posture. Comprised of 33 bones, each called vertebra, the spine is divided into five regions: cervical, <2>thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. Vertebra are named according to the region where they are located along the spine and in numerical order. Discs serve as cushions between each vertebra. Nerves run along the spine, carrying signals between the spine and the rest of the body.
There are many reasons why people experience problems with their spine. Some people like us are born <3>with defects such as spina bifida, which stunts infant <4>brain and spine development. Trauma to the spine can also create problems, in addition <5>when the damage is irreversible. Paralysis happened <6>when the spine is injured beyond repair, and may result in loss of function in the arms or legs. Another reason for damage is the body’s natural deterioration. As a person ages, the spine wears out. The discs that separate each vertebra lose moisture, and nerves that run alongside the spine can become more narrow, which <7>decreases the spines <8>ability to absorb pressure, especially when walking, jogging, or jumping.
Prevention is the best way to maintain a healthy back. There are varieties of ways that people keep themselves pain free and functioning at optimum levels. Sleeping on your back with a pillow under the knees supports its <9>natural curve during the night. When sitting at a desk, keeping ears, shoulders, and hips in line while resting the back firmly against the chair helps with posture. Standing straight with relaxed shoulders, hips, and knees will eliminate undue pressure on the spine. Walking with your head held high, chin tucked, and toes pointed forward will prevent slouching. Plus, you will look fantastically confident. <10>
Diet and sunshine are also important for back health, well-balanced <11>foods build lean muscles that support the spine. Lean proteins, fresh fruits and vegetables, and plenty <12>of water to keep the body hydrated are best choices for a daily regimen. While Vitamin D is found in many foods such as salmon and green leaf lettuce. The <13>sunshine is a body’s best source. At least ten minutes of day <14>sunlight will strengthen bones and provide energy to the body’s systems, encouraging the body to stand straighter. <15>