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It is important to pass your GED test in order to get the job you want or get into the school of your choice.  Our free GED study guide will help you prepare. We provide free GED practice questions, an overview of the exam, and a detailed GED Math Study Guide. More study resources are coming soon.

## Best GED Study Guides

GED Test Premier 2017 with 2 Practice Tests (Kaplan Test Prep)

Rating: Test-Guide's Perspective: This new edition of the classic GED study guide is designed for self-study. It provides thorough coverage of all GED topics: mathematical reasoning, reasoning through language arts, science and social studies.  Includes over a thousand practice questions written in the style of the GED exam and every question has a rationale/explanation.  Also includes online resources like: full-length practice test and 60 online videos.

## Free GED Practice Questions

GED Math

GED Math Practice Test Pool 1 (Note: These math questions are randomized, so please take the quiz multiple times.)
GED Math Practice Test Pool 2 (Note: These math questions are randomized, so please take the quiz multiple times.)

GED Reasoning Through Language Arts

Writing/Language Conventions and Usage

GED Science

GED Science Practice Test

GED Social Studies

GED Social Studies Practice Test

## GED Test Content Details

The GED Exam was revised in 2014.  Students are given 425 minutes (7 hours 5 minutes) to complete the test on a computer. The GED exam is broken down into four content areas: Reasoning Through Language Arts, Mathematical Reasoning, Science and Social Studies.  The details of these sections are show below.

#### GED Reasoning through Language Arts

3 Sections.  150 minutes to complete.  Tests a student's ability to:

• Write clearly
• Edit and understand written English in context.

The GED RLA section assess reading comprehension and writing.  The writing section requires students to integrate reading and writing into meaningful tasks.  The writing component is scored on three elements:

• analysis of arguments and use of evidence
• development of structure and ideas
• command and clarity of standard English

The reading comprehension section of the GED measures a student's ability to determine details and make logical inferences from a variety of written sources.

GED Mathematical Reasoning

2 sections.  115 minutes to complete.  Measures a student's comprehension of basic math skills that are typical for a high school graduate.  Student's are tested on:

• Algebra, functions and patterns
• Number operation and number sense
• Geometry and measurement
• Data analysis, statistics, and Probability

#### GED Science

90 minutes to complete. The GED Science test covers three main topics:

• Life science
• Physical science
• Earth and space science

#### GED Social Studies

70 minutes to complete. The GED Social Studies test covers four main topics:

• United States history
• Civics and government
• Economics
• Geography and the world

## GED Study Tips

### GED Math

Order of Operations

Perform math operations in the following order:

1. Parentheses
2. Exponents
3. Multiplication and Division (left to right)
4. Addition and Subtraction (left to right)

Use the phrase “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” to remember the order.

Example:

12 – (5 x 4 – 4 x 2) / 3 + (3 – 1) x 5 = ?

= 12 – (20 – 8) / 3 + (2) x 5   First do the parentheses. Within the first parentheses do the multiplication first

= 12 – (12) / 3 + 2 x 5  Next, simplify the first parentheses

= 12 – 4 + 10  Then do the division and multiplication (work left to right!)

= 18  Finally, do the subtraction and addition (work left to right)

#### Whole Numbers

##### Place Value

Our number system is based on the place value system and powers of 10.  The number 7,147,689,213 can be depicted as:

 Billions Hundred millions Ten millions Millions Hundred thousands Ten thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones 1,000,000,000 100,000,000 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Powers of 10 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 Number 7 1 4 7 6 8 9 2 1 3

The number 7,147,689,213 can also be spoken as: 7 billion, one hundred forty-seven million, six hundred eighty nine thousand, two hundred thirteen.

##### Rounding/Estimation

You may be asked to round a number to a certain place value (e.g., “Round 2,518 to the nearest hundred”). To round a number to the nearest place value, look at the number to the right of place – if it is 5 or higher then round the number up, otherwise keep the number the same.  Replace all the other numbers to the right with 0s.

Example 1: Round 3,157,213 to the nearest hundred thousand.

Answer 1: The hundred thousand place is 3,157,213.  The number to the right is 5, therefore the answer is 3,200,000

Example 2: Estimate the quotient of 872 ÷ 321 by rounding to the nearest hundred.

Answer 2:  872 rounds to 900.  321 rounds to 300.  Thus, an estimate of 872 ÷ 321 is 900 ÷ 300 = 3.

#### Decimals

##### Place Value

Like whole numbers, decimals can be represented in the place value system. The decimal 213.5764 can be depicted as:

 Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Point Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Ten Thousandths 2 1 3 . 5 7 6 4
##### Rounding Decimals

Rounding decimals is very similar to rounding whole numbers. Simply identify the number to the right of the place you are rounding to. If the number is 5 or higher, round the number up and drop all the numbers to the right.

Example: Round 712.65489 to the nearest thousandth.

Answer: 712.655  The thousandth place is the third number to the right of the decimal “4” (712.65489). The number to the right of the thousandth place, 8, is greater than 5 so you round up and remove all of the numbers to the right.

##### Comparing Decimals

You will be asked to compare decimals to see which is greater/lesser.  To compare decimals, you should align the decimal points and add zeros to make the decimals go to the same place value.

Example: Put the following decimals in order from smallest to largest: 0.45, 0.438, 0.4452

Align the decimals and add zeros to make the comparison.

0.4500

0.4380

0.4452

#### Fractions

##### Types of Fractions

Fractions can come in three types:

1. Proper Fractions – where the numerator (top number) is smaller than the denominator (bottom number).  Examples: 3/10, 4/6, 5/7.
2. Improper Fractions – where the numerator is greater than the denominator. Examples: 10/3, 7/5, 3/2.
3. Mixed Numbers – is a whole number with a fraction. Examples: 5 ½, 6 ¾.
##### Converting Fraction Types

To solve problems, you may be required to convert mixed numbers to improper fractions. The following example show you how to:

Example: Convert 6 ¾ to an improper fraction.

Answer: First multiply the whole number by the denominator (bottom number): 6 x 4 = 23

Then add the numerator: 23 + 3 = 26.  Then express the answer as an improper fraction: 26/4.

##### Least Common Denominator (LCD)

To add or subtract fractions, you sometimes need to find the Least Common Denominator which is the smallest number that can be divided evenly by all denominators in the problem.

Example: What is the Least Common Denominator of 1/3 and 2/8?

Answer: 24. 24 is the smallest number that both 3 and 8 go into evenly.  Sometimes, the easiest way to find the LCD is to simply multiply the denominators (e.g., 3 x 8 = 24), but sometimes this just yields a common denominator, not the least (smallest).  If you need help finding a LCD, see the article at: http://www.wikihow.com/Find-the-Least-Common-Denominator

If a set of fractions has the same denominator, you can simply add (or subtract) the numerators and keep the denominator.

Examples:

2/7 + 3/7 = 5/7

7/9 – 5/9 = 2/9

If the fractions have different denominators, then you need to find the Least Common Denominator first and convert all of the fractions to have the same (LCD) denominator.

Example: 2/3 + 3/4 + 5/6 = ?

First, find the LCD of the denominators 3, 4, and 6.  12 is the smallest number that 3, 4 and 6 go into so that is the LCD.

Second, convert all fractions to use the LCD:

2/3 = 8/12

3/4 = 9/12

5/6 = 10/12.

Then, add the “equivalent” fractions: 8/12 + 9/12 + 10+/12 = (8+9+10)/12 = 27/12

Finally, express the fraction 27/12 in simplest terms:

12 goes into 27 2 times with a remainder of 3, therefore 27/12 = 2 3/12.  3/12 can be simplified by dividing both numerator and denominator by 3, yielding 3/12 = 1/4. So, 27/12 = 2 ¼.

##### Multiplying Fractions

To multiply fractions, follow the following three steps:

1. Write all numbers in fraction form
2. Multiply the numerators, then multiply the denominators
3. Write the fraction in simplified form.

Example: What is 2/3 x 3 ½ x 1/6?

Answer: First step, write all numbers in fraction form:  2/3 x 7/2 x 1/6  (converted 3 ½ to 7/2)

Second step, multiply numerators: 2 x 7 x 1 = 14 and denominators: 3 x 2 x 6 = 36 => 14/36

Final step, write in simplified form.  Both 14 and 36 can be divided by 2, so 14/36 =  7/18 in simplified form.

##### Dividing Fractions

To divide fractions, follow the following four steps:

1. Write all numbers in fraction form
2. Invert the second fraction and change division sign to multiplication
3. Multiply the numerators, then multiply the denominators
4. Write the fraction in simplified form.

Example:  ½ ÷ 1 ¾ = ?

Answer: Step one, write all numbers in fraction form: 1/2 ÷ 7/4

Step two, invert 2nd number and change to multiplication: 1/2 x 4/7

Step three, multiply numerators and denominators: (1 x 4) / (2 x 7) = 4/14

Step four, simplify: 4/14 = 2/7

#### Ordering Numbers

You will likely be given some questions asking you to order four given numbers in a given order. The easiest way to do this is to convert all of the numbers to decimal numbers.  Make sure to pay attention to the order that was requested (i.e, least to greatest or greatest to least).

Example: Place the following numbers in order from least to greatest: 3/7, 1/2, 1 1/8, and .363

3/7 = .429

1/2 = 0.5

1 1/8 = 1.125

.363, 3/7, 1/2 and 1 1/8

#### Percents

To convert a percentage to a decimal, move the decimal point two places to the left

Example: 34% = 0.34

To convert a decimal to a percentage, move the decimal point two places to the right

Example: 0.67 = 67%

To convert a percentage to a fraction, divide by 100

Example: 40% = 40/100 or 2/5

To convert a fraction to a percentage, multiply by 100

Example: 3/5 x 100/1 = 300/5  or 60%

More Examples:

What is 25% of 80?

Answer: 20. Remember: The word of means multiply. Using decimals: .25 x 80 = 20.  Using fractions: ¼ x 80 = 20.

18 is what percent of 90?

Answer: 20%. 18/90 = 2/10 = 0.2 = 20%

##### Calculating Percent Increase or Decrease

You will likely see some questions asking you to calculate a percent increase or decrease. The formula is as follows:

Percent Increase (or decrease)  = Amount of Increase (or decrease) / Original Amount

Examples:

Example 1: A suit is marked down from \$400 to \$350.  What is the percent decrease?

Answer 1: 12.5%  Percent decrease = decrease/original amount = (400-350)/400 = 50/400 = 0.125 = 12.5%

Example 2: A house has appreciated in value from \$200,000 to \$245,000.  What is the percent increase in the value of the house?

Answer 2: 22.5%  Percent increase = increase/original amount = (245,000-200,000)/200,000 = 45,000/200,000 = 0.225 = 22.5%

#### Integers and Rational Numbers

##### Absolute Values

An absolute value of a number represents how far a number is away from zero – it is depicted by the symbol |x| or sometimes as abs(x). You can think of absolute values as ignoring the negative signs of a number.

Examples:

|5| = 5

|-4| = 4

|8-2| = 6

|2-8| = 6

-|8-3| = 5

#### Measurements

##### Metric to English Conversions

You will be asked to convert from English to Metric and vice-versa. You will not need to know the conversion factors/formulas – you will be given those.  The key to these problems is to make sure you have the units “cancel out” when multiplying by the conversion factor, as in the following examples.

Examples:

Example 1: There are 2.5 centimeters in an inch.  How many inches are 10 centimeters?

Answer:  10 centimeters x (1 inch/2.5 centimeters) = 4 inches  (the centimeters unit cancels out – leaving inches as the unit)

Example 2: There are 2.2 lb in 1 kg.  How many kg are in 1 lb?

Answer:   1 lb x (1 kg/2.2 lb) = 0.45 kg

#### Graphs/Charts

On the test, you may be asked when you should use a particular type of graph.  The main types of graphs are:

##### Line graphs

Line graphs are typically used to depict changes in data over time.  The horizontal x-axis shows time units and the vertical y-axis shows the data being measured. ##### Bar graphs

Bar graphs can be used to compare different times, track changes over time or compare different quantities. ##### Pie charts/Circle Graphs

Circle graphs (or pie charts) are used to show proportions (percentages) of a whole. #### Algebra

##### Algebraic Equations

You will be asked to solve basic algebraic equations. In an algebraic equation, you will be asked to solve for a variable (x, for example). The keys to solving algebraic equations are:

Get what you are solving for (the variables) on one side of the = sign, and everything else on the other side

You need to keep the equation in balance (around the = sign), meaning that everything you do on one side of the = sign, you need to do the same thing on the other side.

Examples:

Example 1:  x + 4 = 12. Solve for x.

Answer: Get the variable x on one side, by subtracting 4 from both sides of the equation.

x + 4 -4 = 12 – 4

x = 8

Example 2:  3x + 6 = 21

Answer:  3x + 6 – 6 = 21 – 6  Subtract 6 from both sides to isolate the variables on one side.

3x = 15

3x / 3 = 15 / 3  Divide both sides by 3 to get the variable x by itself

X = 5

##### FOIL Method

You may be asked to multiply two binomials together, like:

(a + b)(c + d) = ?

The easiest way to do this is to use the FOIL method, which is an acronym for First, Outer, Inner, Last – representing the terms of the binomials to multiply

(a + b)(c + d) =  ac + ad + bc + bd    => ac – First.  ad – Outer. bc – Inner.  bd – Last.

Example:

(x + 1)(2x – 5) = (x)(2x) + (x)(-5) + (1)(2x) + (1)(-5)

= 2x2 – 5x + 2x – 5

= 2x2 -3x – 5

#### Geometry

##### Areas and Perimeters

You may be asked to find the area or perimeter of a figure.

Area – The area of a figure is the amount of space within the shape’s boundaries.

Perimeter – The perimeter of a figure is the distance around the shape’s boundaries.

Example:

Find the perimeter of the figure below: Answer:  24 + 7 + 25 = 56 which represents the distance around the shape.

#### Word Problems

There will be several word problems on your test. The key to solving word problems is to break the problem down into smaller problems and solve separately.  Oftentimes it helps to work the problem backwards.

The following word problem types will be on your test:

##### Take home pay problems

Maddie is a nurse and she works 50 hours a week.  Maddie gets paid \$40/hour for regular time (first 40 hours) and \$60/hour for overtime.  The following deductions are taken from her paycheck:

• Federal Taxes: \$550
• State Taxes: \$132
• City Taxes: \$44
• Medicare Tax: \$165
• Health Insurance: \$150
• 401k contribution: \$88

What is her take home pay?

First, calculate her gross pay (pay before deductions).  Maddie gets paid \$40/hour for the first 40 hours and \$60/hour for the 10 overtime hours.

Gross Pay = \$40/hour x 40 hours + \$60/hour x 10 hours = \$1600 + \$600 = \$2200

Then calculate her total deductions.

Total Deductions = Taxes + Health Insurance + 401k

= \$550 + \$132 + \$44 + \$165 + \$150 + \$88

= \$1129

Finally, calculate her take home pay

Take home pay = gross pay – total deductions

Take home pay = \$2200 - \$1129 = \$1071

##### Event cost problems

The cost of tickets for a play are \$10 for adults and \$5 for children.  150 total tickets were sold, of which 100 were adult tickets. What was the total amount of ticket sales for the play?

If 150 tickets were sold and 100 of those were adults, then the remaining 50 tickets (150 – 100) must be children tickets.

Total ticket sales = # adult tickets x adult ticket price + # children tickets x child ticket price

= 100 x \$10 + 50 x \$5

= \$1,000 + \$250

=\$1,250

##### Work rate problems

You may be given a work rate problem such as two people working together to paint a room. To solve these problems, it is best to memorize the work rate formula shown below:

Total Time = T (usually the unknown variable)

A = Work Rate of Person 1

B = Work Rate of Person 2

Work Rate Formula = T/A + T/B = 1

Example:

It takes Mark 12 hours to paint a room by himself.  It takes Abby 8 hours to paint the same room by herself. How long will it take to paint the room together?

(T/A + T/B) = 1

(T/12 + T/8) = 1

Multiply both sides of the equation by the lowest common denominator (24 is the LCD of 8 and 12) to simplify the formula.

24 (T/12 + T/8) = 24 x 1

2T + 3T = 24

5T = 24

T = 24/5 = 4.8 hours

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#### GED Social Studies

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